Must Read: Ebola is Now Attacking Pretoria and Capetown in South Africa

With the increasing rate of Ebola virus appearance in africa, with multiple natural outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, it is worthy of consideration as bioweapon by anti-national groups. Further, with the non-availability of the vaccines against Ebola virus, concerns about the public health emerge. In this regard, this review summarizes the structure, genetics and potential of Ebola virus to be used as a bioweapon. We highlight the recent advances in the treatment strategies and vaccine development against Ebola virus. The understanding of these aspects might lead to effective treatment practices which can be applied during the future outbreaks of Ebola.

Among the new areas that are expecting to have the symptoms of Ebola is Tanzania around kigoma and kagera regio also South Africa in cape Town and Pretoria

Keywords: Ebola virus, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Bioweapon, Ebola vaccine, Ebola outbreak
Introduction
There is a growing risk that the science will be deliberately misused and that the consequences could be catastrophic. The global proliferation of biological weapon (BW) technologies remains a significant threat to public health and the environment. Unfortunately, many BW agents are unfamiliar to most clinicians and laboratory scientists, complicating appropriate responses [28]. Bioweapons are the biological entities or organisms which can be used as a weapon in the wars. Several countries are believed to have offensive biological weapons programs, and some independent anti-national groups have suggested their intention to use biological weapons. As the possibility of a terrorist attack using bioweapons is especially difficult to predict, detect, or prevent, it is among the most-feared terrorism scenarios.

Ebola virus hemorrhagic fever has been known to affect thousands of people worldwide with higher mortality rates. The first reported outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) occurred in 1976 in Democratic republic of Congo (Northwestern Zaire). Since then many severe outbreaks occurred in other parts of the world, Sudan, central and west Africa. The recent outbreak of EVD was the first in densely populated area, infected the largest numbers, was of longest duration with high fatality rate and simultaneously hit three countries i.e. Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra [25]. The severity of the disease led WHO to seek greater efforts to fight against EVD and declare it as public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC).

EVD is a significant health concern worldwide because of the absence of specific effective treatments and vaccines against Ebola virus in addition to lack of early diagnostic methods, insufficient equipment for personal protection and deficient resources for infection control. The high rate of mortality associated with EVD, marked the potential of Ebola virus to be used as bioweapon by anti-national groups. The present review seeks to provide information on the potential of Ebola virus to be used as a bioweapon as well as the recent advances in vaccine development against Ebola virus to combat this risk.


Epidemiology of Ebola virus
Ebola virus is a member of the virus family Filoviridae which contains five species such as Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebola virus, Tai Forest ebola virus, and Zaire ebola virus [35], responsible for causing an infectious disease “Ebola hemorrhagic fever” with a high mortality rate. The name “Ebola” came from the river Zaire where it was first discovered in 1976. The virus actually occurs in the animal population but can be transmitted to the human populations by direct contact. The natural carriers of Ebola virus are thought to be fruit bats which carry the virus without being affected by it. Non-human primates like monkeys can also be the accidental host and can be infected with the virus as humans [26]. After its discovery in 1976, many of the Ebola outbreaks were reported in Sudan, Central and Western Africa; however, the most recent outbreak which simultaneously hit three countries Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone infected the largest numbers, were of longest duration and possess high fatality rate. WHO also seeks greater efforts to fight against Ebola virus and declared this outbreak as a Public H
Among the new areas that are expecting to have the symptoms of Ebola is Tanzania around kigoma and kagera regio also South Africa in cape Town and Pretoria

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